Studies of written english - Педагогика


A kind of writing technique that helps to achieve good results is summarizing the contents of written works.

Summary is a representation of the contents of complete works in brief. It is expected to be about a sixth or a tenth of the original in length. It is easier to make a summary of stories, novels and plays which have a plot.

Plot is a systematic arrangement of events by means of which the writer builds up a meaningful situation and shows the characters. Usually a plot consists of a good beginning, a middle, and an end.

In order to make a good clear summary of a story you have to go through the following stages:

1. Read the story carefully so as to understand its plot.

2. Make a list of all the points you find important. These notes should be very brief, very much like the topic plan (see the sample in Unit Four).

3. Using the list of points, write a rough draft of the summary. You may paraphrase and modify topic sentences. This will help you to reproduce the contents of the story in your own words.

4. After having written a rough draft shorten it and write a -fair copy of your summary.

Note:Take care not to change the meaning of the original or add to it. Your summary may follow the outline of the story in brief.

Here is a sample summary of "A Day's Wait" (see Unit Two).

A boy of nine fell ill. He was running a high temperature (102°F). The doctor diagnosed the illness as flu. He said there was nothing to worry about if the fever did not go above one hundred and four degrees. The boy lay still in the bed. He seemed detached and was looking very strangely at the foot of the bed. When the father took his temperature again the boy asked him about the time he was going to die. He argued with his father about the temperature because when being at school in France he learned from the boys that you can't live with the temperature of forty-four degrees. The father reassured him explaining the difference between the Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers. The boy relaxed after "a day's wait", though the next day he was still suffering from a nervous breakdown.


1. Write a summary of the story "How We Kept Mother's Day". (See Unit Four.)

2. Try to make a summary of Judy's letters. (Don't forget to make a list of the most important points before writing a rough draft.)

3. Write a summary of the dialogue between Ann and Steve. (See Text B.) Think of the best topic sentences introducing or/and completing your summary.


1. Listen to Texts A and B, mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat them following the model

2. Listen to Text С Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the model.

3. Write a spelling-translation test. Check it with the key.

4. Write a dictation. Check your spelling with a dictionary.

5. Translate the sentences and check your translation with the key (written work).

6. listen to the text "Cambridge'' or some other text on the topic "Education". Write tS questions to the text Get ready to discuss it in class.


I. Test your "I. Q."[54]and compare it to Judy's "abyss of ignorance". Say what you know about:

1. Maurice Maeterlinck.

2. Micheleangelo.

3. "David Copperfield" and the author of the book.

4. "Ivanhoe" and the author of the book.

5. "Jane Eyre" and the author of the book.

6. "Robinson Crusoe" and the author of the book.

7. "Alice in Wonderland".

8. Henry the Eighth.

9. Shelley.

10. George Eliot.

11. Mona Lisa.

12. Sherlock Holmes.

II. Give the names of humorists: a) you appreciate most of all; b) of British or American origin; c) of world reputation.



1. I needn't have hurried.

Cf. You needn't go there tomorrow. — You needn't have gone there yesterday.

I needn't tell him that; he knows it. — I needn't have told him that; he knew it already.

The teacher needn't explain such simple things; the pupils know them. — The teacher needn't have explained such simple things; the pupils knew them.

You needn't ask this question. — You needn't have asked this question.

2. He'd been talking more than usual.

You've come later than usual.

Our homework today is longer than usual.

Yesterday this actress played better than usual.

Tomorrow I am to get up earlier than usual.

3.He looked at me with those kind blue eyes of his.

I knew too well that charming smile of hers.

You needn't repeat to me those lies of yours.

I really don't know what to do with this naughty child of mine.

I don't like that sharp voice of your friend's.

Who said that? Of course, that dear husband of Mary's.


I. Paraphrase the following sentences, using Patten 1:

Pattern 1: 1. Why did you answer this question? It was not meant for you. 2. He spoke too long, it bored everybody present. 3. There was no reason why she should get so excited over a little thing like that. 4. Was it necessary to bother such a busy man with this unimportant question? 5. Why have you come to meet me? There was no need for you to bother.

II. Complete the following sentences, using the patterns:

Pattern 2: 1. Today she has been answering her task even better ... . 2. Are you ill? You are looking ... . 3. The way to his office seemed to him on that day ... . 4. He was in love, and the sun seemed to shine .... 5.... earlier than usual. 6. The soup tastes even .... 7.... later than usual.

Pattern 3:1. She addressed us angrily in that harsh ... . 2. Did you happen to see that charming ... ? 3. I didn't want to come up to you, because you were so busy speaking to that dear .... 4. I don't like the way she treats that miserable .... 5. I wish I knew how I should bring up this dear .... 6. No one any longer believes those ... . 7. If I were you, I should throw away these .... 8. Who could have done such a thing but...? 9. I have heard a lot about that....

III. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Вам не нужно было приходить сюда так рано. Никто еще не пришел. 2. Из-за этих своих тесных туфель она еле-еле шла. Мы добрались до остановки автобуса позже, чем обычно, и, конечно, автобус уже ушел. 3. В этот день Джуди была больна и чувствовала себя несчастней, чем обычно. Она не поверила своим глазам, когда ей принесли большую коробку с полураспустившимися розами — подарок этого ее таинственного опекуна.